DIRECTIVE 2006/42/EC ANNEX I_EHSR

3.   SUPPLEMENTARY ESSENTIAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS TO OFFSET HAZARDS DUE TO THE MOBILITY OF MACHINERY

Machinery presenting hazards due to its mobility must meet all the essential health and safety requirements described in this chapter (see General Principles, point 4).

3.1.   GENERAL
3.1.1.   Definitions
(a)
‘Machinery presenting hazards due to its mobility’ means
—machinery the operation of which requires either mobility while working, or continuous or semi-continuous movement between a succession of fixed working locations, or
—machinery which is operated without being moved, but which may be equipped in such a way as to enable it to be moved more easily from one place to another.

(b)
‘Driver’ means an operator responsible for the movement of a machine. The driver may be transported by the machinery or may be on foot, accompanying the machinery, or may guide the machinery by remote control.

3.2.   WORK POSITIONS
3.2.1.   Driving position

Visibility from the driving position must be such that the driver can, in complete safety for himself and the exposed persons, operate the machinery and its tools in their foreseeable conditions of use. Where necessary, appropriate devices must be provided to remedy hazards due to inadequate direct vision.

Machinery on which the driver is transported must be designed and constructed in such a way that, from the driving positions, there is no risk to the driver from inadvertent contact with the wheels and tracks.

The driving position of ride-on drivers must be designed and constructed in such a way that a driver's cab may be fitted, provided this does not increase the risk and there is room for it. The cab must incorporate a place for the instructions needed for the driver.

3.2.2.   Seating

Where there is a risk that operators or other persons transported by the machinery may be crushed between parts of the machinery and the ground should the machinery roll or tip over, in particular for machinery equipped with a protective structure referred to in section 3.4.3 or 3.4.4, their seats must be designed or equipped with a restraint system so as to keep the persons in their seats, without restricting movements necessary for operations or movements relative to the structure caused by the suspension of the seats. Such restraint systems should not be fitted if they increase the risk.

3.2.3.   Positions for other persons

If the conditions of use provide that persons other than the driver may occasionally or regularly be transported by the machinery or work on it, appropriate positions must be provided which enable them to be transported or to work on it without risk.

The second and third paragraphs of section 3.2.1 also apply to the places provided for persons other than the driver.

3.3.   CONTROL SYSTEMS

If necessary, steps must be taken to prevent unauthorised use of controls.

In the case of remote controls, each control unit must clearly identify the machinery to be controlled from that unit.

The remote control system must be designed and constructed in such a way as to affect only:
—the machinery in question,
—the functions in question.
Remote controlled machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that it will respond only to signals from the intended control units.

3.3.1.   Control devices

The driver must be able to actuate all control devices required to operate the machinery from the driving position, except for functions which can be safely actuated only by using control devices located elsewhere. These functions include, in particular, those for which operators other than the driver are responsible or for which the driver has to leave the driving position in order to control them safely.

Where there are pedals, they must be so designed, constructed and fitted as to allow safe operation by the driver with the minimum risk of incorrect operation. They must have a slip-resistant surface and be easy to clean.

Where their operation can lead to hazards, notably dangerous movements, the control devices, except for those with preset positions, must return to the neutral position as soon as they are released by the operator.

In the case of wheeled machinery, the steering system must be designed and constructed in such a way as to reduce the force of sudden movements of the steering wheel or the steering lever caused by shocks to the guide wheels.

Any control that locks the differential must be so designed and arranged that it allows the differential to be unlocked when the machinery is moving.

The sixth paragraph of section 1.2.2, concerning acoustic and/or visual warning signals, applies only in the case of reversing.

3.3.2.   Starting/moving
All travel movements of self-propelled machinery with a ride-on driver must be possible only if the driver is at the controls.

Where, for operating purposes, machinery is fitted with devices which exceed its normal clearance zone (e.g. stabilisers, jib, etc.), the driver must be provided with the means of checking easily, before moving the machinery, that such devices are in a particular position which allows safe movement.

This also applies to all other parts which, to allow safe movement, have to be in particular positions, locked if necessary.

Where it does not give rise to other risks, movement of the machinery must depend on safe positioning of the aforementioned parts.

It must not be possible for unintentional movement of the machinery to occur while the engine is being started.

3.3.3.   Travelling function
Without prejudice to road traffic regulations, self-propelled machinery and its trailers must meet the requirements for slowing down, stopping, braking and immobilisation so as to ensure safety under all the operating, load, speed, ground and gradient conditions allowed for.

The driver must be able to slow down and stop self-propelled machinery by means of a main device. Where safety so requires, in the event of a failure of the main device, or in the absence of the energy supply needed to actuate the main device, an emergency device with a fully independent and easily accessible control device must be provided for slowing down and stopping.

Where safety so requires, a parking device must be provided to render stationary machinery immobile. This device may be combined with one of the devices referred to in the second paragraph, provided that it is purely mechanical.

Remote-controlled machinery must be equipped with devices for stopping operation automatically and immediately and for preventing potentially dangerous operation in the following situations:
—if the driver loses control,
—if it receives a stop signal,
—if a fault is detected in a safety-related part of the system,
—if no validation signal is detected within a specified time.
Section 1.2.4 does not apply to the travelling function.

3.3.4.   Movement of pedestrian-controlled machinery
Movement of pedestrian-controlled self-propelled machinery must be possible only through sustained action on the relevant control device by the driver. In particular, it must not be possible for movement to occur while the engine is being started.

The control systems for pedestrian-controlled machinery must be designed in such a way as to minimise the risks arising from inadvertent movement of the machine towards the driver, in particular:
—crushing,
—injury from rotating tools.
The speed of travel of the machinery must be compatible with the pace of a driver on foot.

In the case of machinery on which a rotary tool may be fitted, it must not be possible to actuate the tool when the reverse control is engaged, except where the movement of the machinery results from movement of the tool. In the latter case, the reversing speed must be such that it does not endanger the driver.

3.3.5.   Control circuit failure

A failure in the power supply to the power-assisted steering, where fitted, must not prevent machinery from being steered during the time required to stop it.

3.4.   PROTECTION AGAINST MECHANICAL HAZARDS

3.4.1.   Uncontrolled movements

Machinery must be designed, constructed and where appropriate placed on its mobile support in such a way as to ensure that, when moved, uncontrolled oscillations of its centre of gravity do not affect its stability or exert excessive strain on its structure.

3.4.2.   Moving transmission parts

By way of exception to section 1.3.8.1, in the case of engines, moveable guards preventing access to the moving parts in the engine compartment need not have interlocking devices if they have to be opened either by the use of a tool or key or by a control located in the driving position, providing the latter is in a fully enclosed cab with a lock to prevent unauthorised access.

3.4.3.   Roll-over and tip-over

Where, in the case of self-propelled machinery with a ride-on driver, operator(s) or other person(s), there is a risk of rolling or tipping over, the machinery must be fitted with an appropriate protective structure, unless this increases the risk.

This structure must be such that in the event of rolling or tipping over it affords the ride-on person(s) an adequate deflection-limiting volume.

In order to verify that the structure complies with the requirement laid down in the second paragraph, the manufacturer or his authorised representative must, for each type of structure concerned, perform appropriate tests or have such tests performed.

3.4.4.   Falling objects

Where, in the case of self-propelled machinery with a ride-on driver, operator(s) or other person(s), there is a risk due to falling objects or material, the machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to take account of this risk and fitted, if its size allows, with an appropriate protective structure.

This structure must be such that, in the event of falling objects or material, it guarantees the ride-on person(s) an adequate deflection-limiting volume.

In order to verify that the structure complies with the requirement laid down in the second paragraph, the manufacturer or his authorised representative must, for each type of structure concerned, perform appropriate tests or have such tests performed.

3.4.5.   Means of access

Handholds and steps must be designed, constructed and arranged in such a way that the operators use them instinctively and do not use the control devices to assist access.

3.4.6.   Towing devices

All machinery used to tow or to be towed must be fitted with towing or coupling devices designed, constructed and arranged in such a way as to ensure easy and secure connection and disconnection and to prevent accidental disconnection during use.

Insofar as the tow bar load so requires, such machinery must be equipped with a support with a bearing surface suited to the load and the ground.

3.4.7.   Transmission of power between self-propelled machinery (or tractor) and recipient machinery

Removable mechanical transmission devices linking self-propelled machinery (or a tractor) to the first fixed bearing of recipient machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that any part that moves during operation is protected over its whole length.

On the side of the self-propelled machinery (or tractor), the power take-off to which the removable mechanical transmission device is attached must be protected either by a guard fixed and linked to the self-propelled machinery (or tractor) or by any other device offering equivalent protection.

It must be possible to open this guard for access to the removable transmission device. Once it is in place, there must be enough room to prevent the drive shaft damaging the guard when the machinery (or the tractor) is moving.

On the recipient machinery side, the input shaft must be enclosed in a protective casing fixed to the machinery.

Torque limiters or freewheels may be fitted to universal joint transmissions only on the side adjoining the driven machinery. The removable mechanical transmission device must be marked accordingly.

All recipient machinery, the operation of which requires a removable mechanical transmission device to connect it to self-propelled machinery (or a tractor), must have a system for attaching the removable mechanical transmission device so that, when the machinery is uncoupled, the removable mechanical transmission device and its guard are not damaged by contact with the ground or part of the machinery.

The outside parts of the guard must be so designed, constructed and arranged that they cannot turn with the removable mechanical transmission device. The guard must cover the transmission to the ends of the inner jaws in the case of simple universal joints and at least to the centre of the outer joint or joints in the case of wide-angle universal joints.

If means of access to working positions are provided near to the removable mechanical transmission device, they must be designed and constructed in such a way that the shaft guards cannot be used as steps, unless designed and constructed for that purpose.

 

3.5.   PROTECTION AGAINST OTHER HAZARDS

3.5.1.   Batteries

The battery housing must be designed and constructed in such a way as to prevent the electrolyte being ejected on to the operator in the event of rollover or tipover and to avoid the accumulation of vapours in places occupied by operators.

Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that the battery can be disconnected with the aid of an easily accessible device provided for that purpose.

3.5.2.   Fire

Depending on the hazards anticipated by the manufacturer, machinery must, where its size permits:
—either allow easily accessible fire extinguishers to be fitted, or
—be provided with built-in extinguisher systems.

3.5.3.   Emissions of hazardous substances

The second and third paragraphs of section 1.5.13 do not apply where the main function of the machinery is the spraying of products. However, the operator must be protected against the risk of exposure to such hazardous emissions.

3.6.   INFORMATION AND INDICATIONS

3.6.1.   Signs, signals and warnings

All machinery must have signs and/or instruction plates concerning use, adjustment and maintenance, wherever necessary, so as to ensure the health and safety of persons. They must be chosen, designed and constructed in such a way as to be clearly visible and indelible.

Without prejudice to the provisions of road traffic regulations, machinery with a ride-on driver must have the following equipment:
—an acoustic warning device to alert persons,

—a system of light signals relevant to the intended conditions of use; the latter requirement does not apply to machinery intended solely for underground working and having no electrical power,
—where necessary, there must be an appropriate connection between a trailer and the machinery for the operation of signals.

Remote-controlled machinery which, under normal conditions of use, exposes persons to the risk of impact or crushing must be fitted with appropriate means to signal its movements or with means to protect persons against such risks. The same applies to machinery which involves, when in use, the constant repetition of a forward and backward movement on a single axis where the area to the rear of the machine is not directly visible to the driver.

Machinery must be constructed in such a way that the warning and signalling devices cannot be disabled unintentionally. Where it is essential for safety, such devices must be provided with the means to check that they are in good working order and their failure must be made apparent to the operator.

Where the movement of machinery or its tools is particularly hazardous, signs on the machinery must be provided to warn against approaching the machinery while it is working; the signs must be legible at a sufficient distance to ensure the safety of persons who have to be in the vicinity.

3.6.2.   Marking

The following must be shown legibly and indelibly on all machinery:
—nominal power expressed in kilowatts (kW),
—mass of the most usual configuration, in kilograms (kg);
and, where appropriate:
—maximum drawbar pull provided for at the coupling hook, in Newtons (N),
—maximum vertical load provided for on the coupling hook, in Newtons (N).

3.6.3.   Instructions

3.6.3.1.   Vibrations

The instructions must give the following information concerning vibrations transmitted by the machinery to the hand-arm system or to the whole body:

—the vibration total value to which the hand-arm system is subjected, if it exceeds 2,5 m/s2. Where this value does not exceed 2,5 m/s2, this must be mentioned,
—the highest root mean square value of weighted acceleration to which the whole body is subjected, if it exceeds 0,5 m/s2. Where this value does not exceed 0,5 m/s2, this must be mentioned,
—the uncertainty of measurement.

These values must be either those actually measured for the machinery in question or those established on the basis of measurements taken for technically comparable machinery which is representative of the machinery to be produced.

Where harmonised standards are not applied, the vibration must be measured using the most appropriate measurement code for the machinery concerned.

The operating conditions during measurement and the measurement codes used must be described.

3.6.3.2.   Multiple uses

The instructions for machinery allowing several uses depending on the equipment used and the instructions for the interchangeable equipment must contain the information necessary for safe assembly and use of the basic machinery and the interchangeable equipment that can be fitted.