DIRECTIVE 2006/42/EC ANNEX I_EHSR

4.   SUPPLEMENTARY ESSENTIAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS TO OFFSET HAZARDS DUE TO LIFTING OPERATIONS

Machinery presenting hazards due to lifting operations must meet all the relevant essential health and safety requirements described in this chapter (see General Principles, point 4).

4.1.   GENERAL

4.1.1.   Definitions
(a)
Lifting operation’ means a movement of unit loads consisting of goods and/or persons necessitating, at a given moment, a change of level.

(b)
‘Guided load’ means a load where the total movement is made along rigid or flexible guides whose position is determined by fixed points.
(c)
‘Working coefficient’ means the arithmetic ratio between the load guaranteed by the manufacturer or his authorised representative up to which a component is able to hold it and the maximum working load marked on the component.
(d)
‘Test coefficient’ means the arithmetic ratio between the load used to carry out the static or dynamic tests on lifting machinery or a lifting accessory and the maximum working load marked on the lifting machinery or lifting accessory.
(e)
‘Static test’ means the test during which lifting machinery or a lifting accessory is first inspected and subjected to a force corresponding to the maximum working load multiplied by the appropriate static test coefficient and then re-inspected once the said load has been released to ensure that no damage has occurred.
(f)
‘Dynamic test’ means the test during which lifting machinery is operated in all its possible configurations at the maximum working load multiplied by the appropriate dynamic test coefficient with account being taken of the dynamic behaviour of the lifting machinery in order to check that it functions properly.
(g)
‘Carrier’ means a part of the machinery on or in which persons and/or goods are supported in order to be lifted.

4.1.2.   Protection against mechanical hazards

4.1.2.1.   Risks due to lack of stability

Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that the stability required by section 1.3.1 is maintained both in service and out of service, including all stages of transportation, assembly and dismantling, during foreseeable component failures and also during the tests carried out in accordance with the instruction handbook. To that end, the manufacturer or his authorised representative must use the appropriate verification methods.

4.1.2.2.   Machinery running on guide rails and rail tracks

Machinery must be provided with devices which act on the guide rails or tracks to prevent derailment.

If, despite such devices, there remains a risk of derailment or of failure of a rail or of a running component, devices must be provided which prevent the equipment, component or load from falling or the machinery from overturning.

4.1.2.3.   Mechanical strength

Machinery, lifting accessories and their components must be capable of withstanding the stresses to which they are subjected, both in and, where applicable, out of use, under the installation and operating conditions provided for and in all relevant configurations, with due regard, where appropriate, to the effects of atmospheric factors and forces exerted by persons. This requirement must also be satisfied during transport, assembly and dismantling.

Machinery and lifting accessories must be designed and constructed in such a way as to prevent failure from fatigue and wear, taking due account of their intended use.

The materials used must be chosen on the basis of the intended working environments, with particular regard to corrosion, abrasion, impacts, extreme temperatures, fatigue, brittleness and ageing.

Machinery and lifting accessories must be designed and constructed in such a way as to withstand the overload in the static tests without permanent deformation or patent defect. Strength calculations must take account of the value of the static test coefficient chosen to guarantee an adequate level of safety. That coefficient has, as a general rule, the following values:
(a)
manually-operated machinery and lifting accessories: 1,5;
(b)
other machinery: 1,25.

Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to undergo, without failure, the dynamic tests carried out using the maximum working load multiplied by the dynamic test coefficient. This dynamic test coefficient is chosen so as to guarantee an adequate level of safety: the coefficient is, as a general rule, equal to 1,1. As a general rule, the tests will be performed at the nominal speeds provided for. Should the control circuit of the machinery allow for a number of simultaneous movements, the tests must be carried out under the least favourable conditions, as a general rule by combining the movements concerned.

4.1.2.4.   Pulleys, drums, wheels, ropes and chains

Pulleys, drums and wheels must have a diameter commensurate with the size of the ropes or chains with which they can be fitted.

Drums and wheels must be designed, constructed and installed in such a way that the ropes or chains with which they are equipped can be wound without coming off.

Ropes used directly for lifting or supporting the load must not include any splicing other than at their ends. Splicings are, however, tolerated in installations which are intended by design to be modified regularly according to needs of use.

Complete ropes and their endings must have a working coefficient chosen in such a way as to guarantee an adequate level of safety. As a general rule, this coefficient is equal to 5.

Lifting chains must have a working coefficient chosen in such a way as to guarantee an adequate level of safety. As a general rule, this coefficient is equal to 4.

In order to verify that an adequate working coefficient has been attained, the manufacturer or his authorised representative must, for each type of chain and rope used directly for lifting the load and for the rope ends, perform the appropriate tests or have such tests performed.

4.1.2.5.   Lifting accessories and their components

Lifting accessories and their components must be sized with due regard to fatigue and ageing processes for a number of operating cycles consistent with their expected life-span as specified in the operating conditions for a given application.

Moreover:
(a)
the working coefficient of wire-rope/rope-end combinations must be chosen in such a way as to guarantee an adequate level of safety; this coefficient is, as a general rule, equal to 5. Ropes must not comprise any splices or loops other than at their ends;
(b)
where chains with welded links are used, they must be of the short-link type. The working coefficient of chains must be chosen in such a way as to guarantee an adequate level of safety; this coefficient is, as a general rule, equal to 4;
(c)
the working coefficient for textile ropes or slings is dependent on the material, method of manufacture, dimensions and use. This coefficient must be chosen in such a way as to guarantee an adequate level of safety; it is, as a general rule, equal to 7, provided the materials used are shown to be of very good quality and the method of manufacture is appropriate to the intended use. Should this not be the case, the coefficient is, as a general rule, set at a higher level in order to secure an equivalent level of safety. Textile ropes and slings must not include any knots, connections or splicing other than at the ends of the sling, except in the case of an endless sling;
(d)
all metallic components making up, or used with, a sling must have a working coefficient chosen in such a way as to guarantee an adequate level of safety; this coefficient is, as a general rule, equal to 4;
(e)
the maximum working load of a multilegged sling is determined on the basis of the working coefficient of the weakest leg, the number of legs and a reduction factor which depends on the slinging configuration;
(f)
in order to verify that an adequate working coefficient has been attained, the manufacturer or his authorised representative must, for each type of component referred to in (a), (b), (c) and (d), perform the appropriate tests or have such tests performed.

4.1.2.6.   Control of movements
Devices for controlling movements must act in such a way that the machinery on which they are installed is kept safe.
(a)
Machinery must be designed and constructed or fitted with devices in such a way that the amplitude of movement of its components is kept within the specified limits. The operation of such devices must, where appropriate, be preceded by a warning.
(b)
Where several fixed or rail-mounted machines can be manoeuvred simultaneously in the same place, with risks of collision, such machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to make it possible to fit systems enabling these risks to be avoided.
(c)
Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that the loads cannot creep dangerously or fall freely and unexpectedly, even in the event of partial or total failure of the power supply or when the operator stops operating the machine.
(d)
It must not be possible, under normal operating conditions, to lower the load solely by friction brake, except in the case of machinery whose function requires it to operate in that way.
(e)
Holding devices must be designed and constructed in such a way that inadvertent dropping of the loads is avoided.

4.1.2.7.   Movements of loads during handling

The operating position of machinery must be located in such a way as to ensure the widest possible view of trajectories of the moving parts, in order to avoid possible collisions with persons, equipment or other machinery which might be manoeuvring at the same time and liable to constitute a hazard.

Machinery with guided loads must be designed and constructed in such a way as to prevent persons from being injured by movement of the load, the carrier or the counterweights, if any.

4.1.2.8.   Machinery serving fixed landings

4.1.2.8.1.   Movements of the carrier

The movement of the carrier of machinery serving fixed landings must be rigidly guided to and at the landings. Scissor systems are also regarded as rigid guidance.

4.1.2.8.2.   Access to the carrier

Where persons have access to the carrier, the machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to ensure that the carrier remains stationary during access, in particular while it is being loaded or unloaded.

The machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to ensure that the difference in level between the carrier and the landing being served does not create a risk of tripping.

4.1.2.8.3.   Risks due to contact with the moving carrier

Where necessary in order to fulfil the requirement expressed in the second paragraph of section 4.1.2.7, the travel zone must be rendered inaccessible during normal operation.

When, during inspection or maintenance, there is a risk that persons situated under or above the carrier may be crushed between the carrier and any fixed parts, sufficient free space must be provided either by means of physical refuges or by means of mechanical devices blocking the movement of the carrier.

4.1.2.8.4.   Risk due to the load falling off the carrier

Where there is a risk due to the load falling off the carrier, the machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to prevent this risk.

4.1.2.8.5.   Landings

Risks due to contact of persons at landings with the moving carrier or other moving parts must be prevented.

Where there is a risk due to persons falling into the travel zone when the carrier is not present at the landings, guards must be fitted in order to prevent this risk. Such guards must not open in the direction of the travel zone. They must be fitted with an interlocking device controlled by the position of the carrier that prevents:
—hazardous movements of the carrier until the guards are closed and locked,
—hazardous opening of a guard until the carrier has stopped at the corresponding landing.
4.1.3.   Fitness for purpose

When lifting machinery or lifting accessories are placed on the market or are first put into service, the manufacturer or his authorised representative must ensure, by taking appropriate measures or having them taken, that the machinery or the lifting accessories which are ready for use — whether manually or power-operated — can fulfil their specified functions safely.

The static and dynamic tests referred to in section 4.1.2.3 must be performed on all lifting machinery ready to be put into service.

Where the machinery cannot be assembled in the manufacturer's premises or in the premises of his authorised representative, the appropriate measures must be taken at the place of use. Otherwise, the measures may be taken either in the manufacturer's premises or at the place of use.

4.2.   REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINERY WHOSE POWER SOURCE IS OTHER THAN MANUAL EFFORT

4.2.1.   Control of movements

Hold-to-run control devices must be used to control the movements of the machinery or its equipment. However, for partial or complete movements in which there is no risk of the load or the machinery colliding, the said devices may be replaced by control devices authorising automatic stops at pre-selected positions without the operator holding a hold-to-run control device.

4.2.2.   Loading control

Machinery with a maximum working load of not less than 1 000 kilograms or an overturning moment of not less than 40 000 Nm must be fitted with devices to warn the driver and prevent dangerous movements in the event:
—of overloading, either as a result of the maximum working load or the maximum working moment due to the load being exceeded, or
—of the overturning moment being exceeded.

4.2.3.   Installations guided by ropes

Rope carriers, tractors or tractor carriers must be held by counterweights or by a device allowing permanent control of the tension.

4.3.   INFORMATION AND MARKINGS

4.3.1.   Chains, ropes and webbing

Each length of lifting chain, rope or webbing not forming part of an assembly must bear a mark or, where this is not possible, a plate or irremovable ring bearing the name and address of the manufacturer or his authorised representative and the identifying reference of the relevant certificate.

The certificate mentioned above must show at least the following information:
(a)
the name and address of the manufacturer and, if appropriate, his authorised representative;
(b)
a description of the chain or rope which includes:
—its nominal size,
—its construction,
—the material from which it is made, and
—any special metallurgical treatment applied to the material;

(c)
the test method used;
(d)
the maximum load to which the chain or rope should be subjected in service. A range of values may be given on the basis of the intended applications.
4.3.2.   Lifting accessories

Lifting accessories must show the following particulars:
—identification of the material where this information is needed for safe use,
—the maximum working load.

In the case of lifting accessories on which marking is physically impossible, the particulars referred to in the first paragraph must be displayed on a plate or other equivalent means and securely affixed to the accessory.

The particulars must be legible and located in a place where they are not liable to disappear as a result of wear or jeopardise the strength of the accessory.

4.3.3.   Lifting machinery

The maximum working load must be prominently marked on the machinery. This marking must be legible, indelible and in an un-coded form.

Where the maximum working load depends on the configuration of the machinery, each operating position must be provided with a load plate indicating, preferably in diagrammatic form or by means of tables, the working load permitted for each configuration.

Machinery intended for lifting goods only, equipped with a carrier which allows access to persons, must bear a clear and indelible warning prohibiting the lifting of persons. This warning must be visible at each place where access is possible.

4.4.   INSTRUCTIONS

4.4.1.   Lifting accessories

Each lifting accessory or each commercially indivisible batch of lifting accessories must be accompanied by instructions setting out at least the following particulars:
(a)
the intended use;
(b)
the limits of use (particularly for lifting accessories such as magnetic or vacuum pads which do not fully comply with section 4.1.2.6(e));
(c)
instructions for assembly, use and maintenance;
(d)
the static test coefficient used.

4.4.2.   Lifting machinery

Lifting machinery must be accompanied by instructions containing information on:
(a)
the technical characteristics of the machinery, and in particular:
—the maximum working load and, where appropriate, a copy of the load plate or load table described in the second paragraph of section 4.3.3,
—the reactions at the supports or anchors and, where appropriate, characteristics of the tracks,
—where appropriate, the definition and the means of installation of the ballast;

(b)
the contents of the logbook, if the latter is not supplied with the machinery;
(c)
advice for use, particularly to offset the lack of direct vision of the load by the operator;
(d)
where appropriate, a test report detailing the static and dynamic tests carried out by or for the manufacturer or his authorised representative;
(e)
for machinery which is not assembled on the premises of the manufacturer in the form in which it is to be used, the necessary instructions for performing the measures referred to in section 4.1.3 before it is first put into service.